Thursday, August 27, 2020
Our Bandit Future Cities, Shantytowns, and Climate Change Governance - Essay Example The analyst expresses that the impacts of environmental change on the world's urban areas and the individuals who live in them are not subjects that have gotten a lot of consideration, at any rate not in confinement from other environmental change impacts. Environmental change impacts will in general get considered in mainland or provincial terms: dissolving ice tops, horticultural harvest misfortunes across huge areas of land, and shoreline misfortune that will immerse sub-landmasses. On the other hand, the conversation will in general spotlight on conduct change, again at the degree of whole national populaces, recommending that nations must consider utilizing cleaner vitality sources, delivering cleaner-consuming vehicles, and giving motivators to residents to protect their homes better. Many, if not most, observers appear to support the view that goals of environmental change difficulties ought to be tended to at the worldwide level and upheld by state parties compliant with worl dwide accords. All the more as of late, there has been some conversation of the imbalances that environmental change will fuel. Roughly put, the investigation places that more unfortunate countries, particularly those in Asia and Africa, will get less fortunate, while the more extravagant countries will- - on the off chance that they don't get more extravagant - endure less of the negative results of environmental change. Considering these differential environmental change consequences for more unfortunate countries, a few investigators have investigated the likelihood of expanded common difficulty. In any case, in any event, when the writing looks at impacts of environmental change on common hardship, the examination will in general location national jobs and two-sided or multilateral national reactions. (5) Furthermore, when land use changes are examined, urban land use is normally rejected from thought. The spotlight will in general be on deforestation and farming area. (6) This discussion strikingly dismisses what is ostensibly the prevailing segment move ofÃ¢ ourÃ¢ era, to be specific the worldwide pattern towards urbanization- - the transition to uber urban areas. As the United Nations Population Fund reports, in 2008, a dominant part of the total populace will live in urban zones. That number is relied upon to increment by another half by 2030. (7) In recorded terms, it is difficult to downplay the centrality of this wonder, particularly because of the fact that by far most of these urban workers will show up with hardly any assets and live in ghetto conditions. (8) Moreover, maybe the trademark highlight of numerous such ghettos is that they are commanded by the casual economy, portrayed by harsh frameworks of support, debasement, and brutality. (9) As the world gets more blazing, this appears to probably make a- - maybe truly - ignitable circumstance. (10) A large group of components, including ecological corruption, lacking arrangement of natural and framework administrations, and constrained work openings are consolidating to transform a significant number of the world's uber ghettos into perilous, brutal spots. (11) Moreover, there is impressive writing that has analyzed the connection between expanded urban savagery and temperature rise. (12) It doesn't appear to be nonsensical, accordingly, to place an association between environmental change and urban savagery, one that calls
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Idea Generation Stylish Kicks Shoe Crafters Ltd is an organization that structures and makes footwear. It has been doing business throughout the previous 12 years. We have been hoping to extend our activities by broadening our scope of items further.Advertising We will compose a custom article test on Stylish Kicks Shoe Crafters Ltd explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More Our Research Development office over the span of its escalated inquire about work has recognized presence of a market hole for maternity shoes. It has met a few hopeful moms who have given them significant info with respect to the difficulties they face when oedema kicks in and what sorts of shoes they would need to wear in those conditions. The Ministry of Public Health has additionally been instrumental in giving valuable data to Stylish Kicks ltd regarding executing the maternity footwear thought. The data remembers measurements of pregnancy oedema for the nation, outcomes of wearing improper shoes , and the significance of good stance in pregnancy. A la mode Kicks ltd is along these lines preparing for another product offering, maternity footwear, explicitly intended for mothers to be. We intend to call it for Mama. Idea Screening We will follow the accompanying assessment rules: Feasibility Now, Stylish Kicks will be out to discover how viable propelling for Mama will be. We will try to know whether the market is enormous enough as to legitimize venture of capital in the undertaking. The objective market, obviously, is the eager ladies and their populace is clearly generous, sponsored by insights gathered by the RD division from the Ministry of Public Health and other autonomous studies. Worthiness Various offices will be taking a gander at the reasonability of the item, their decisions being on alternate points of view. Advertisers will need to know how adequate the piece of the overall industry is. Starter Design At this point the organization will decide make an item util izing a fundamental plan and dispatch in the market to assess its adequacy. The organization will at that point take the perspectives on the clients who will the guinea pigs. From that point forward, the organization sets out on the creation of a last product.Advertising Looking for exposition on business financial aspects? We should check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Design Evaluation and Improvement After creation for Mama, we will take it to advertise for pre-testing. We will offer free examples to pre-birth medical clinics over the market (both very good quality and low end). We will assess basic territories of for Mama. This incorporates the effect of empowering messages, comfort, solidness (somewhat long haul) and the general brand discernment. Prototyping and Final Design Putting into thought the assessment and improvement previously mentioned, we will make a virtual model by utilization of Computer Aided Design and Drafting program ming. This will control us in making a genuine model. When we have a plan that meets the above measures, we will begin making the genuine last item. This last structure will experience testing taking things down a notch. We will believe in its presentation in the market since we will have done what's needed research and dealt with the underlying opinions (Kotler, Margaret and Turner, 2011). Components That Affect Location Decisions The key choices include in dealing with a channel include: Selecting individuals from a channel: Different organizations draw in clients distinctively inside the various channels. So as to get the best delegates, the organization ought to think about the accompanying: the quantity of years the middle person has been in the business, their benefit and development records, different administrations that they offer, their dissolvability, their level of helpfulness and their notoriety. Rousing channel individuals: For the delegates to perform well, the organi zation should consistently spur them. A portion of the manners in which that an organization can use to propel them incorporate the utilization of pressuring power, remunerating power, real force, master force and referent force. Assessing channel individuals: Occasionally the organization ought to assess the presentation of their individuals. This ought to consistently be according to their set guidelines (Hutt and Speh 2009). Changing channel game plans: In request for an offered channel to be compelling, the maker ought to every so often adjust it to stay aware of new conditions in the commercial center. Adjustment generally gets basic if the present channel isn't functioning as required, the market gets greater, the purchasing behaviors of buyers change, new contenders enters the market, better channels of circulation rises and if the item enters an alternate creation stage in its life cycle (Kotler, Shalowitz Stevens, 2010). References Hutt, M. Speh, T. (2009). Business Managem ent Marketing. London: Cengage Publishers.Advertising We will compose a custom paper test on Stylish Kicks Shoe Crafters Ltd explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kotler, P., Margaret, H. Turner, E. (2011). Advertising Management. New York: Pearson Publishers. Kotler, P., Shalowitz, J. Stevens, J. (2010). Advertising for Health Care Organizations: Building a Customer-Driven Health System. London: John Wiley and Sons Publishers. This paper on Stylish Kicks Shoe Crafters Ltd was composed and put together by client Cayden Fischer to help you with your own investigations. You are allowed to utilize it for research and reference purposes so as to compose your own paper; in any case, you should refer to it appropriately. You can give your paper here.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Blog Archive Mission Admission Asking for Last-Minute Feedback Mission Admission is a series of MBA admission tips; a new one is posted each Tuesday. With deadlines looming for many business school candidates, we thought we would share a piece of advice that might help alleviate some deadline-related stress. After you have completed (but not yet submitted!) your MBA application(s), find one individual you trustâ"whether a professional consultant or someone with insight into the application processâ"to read your essays one last time and give you feedback. We strongly suggest that you limit yourself to requesting feedback from just one or two individuals, however. Because the application process is subjective, you will discover that as you add readers, you will also add new and different opinions. Soon, a multitude of alternatives might appear, and although none of these varying ideas will necessarily be ârightâ or âwrongââ"considering that a single candidateâs stories can be marketed in almost countless waysâ"they can create unnecessary uncertainty. We are not suggesting that you ignore critical feedback, but rather that you not complicate your final days and create doubt where it may not be due. If one or two readers support your ideas and emphasize that your application needs minimal work, you are probably best off ending your feedback loop there and submitting your application. Share ThisTweet Mission Admission
Monday, May 25, 2020
Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 546 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2019/05/18 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Huckleberry Finn Essay Mark Twain Essay Did you like this example? In Mark Twains novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, satire and irony are frequently used as a medium to portray his emotions towards issues related to society in that time period. Throughout the novel Twain ridicules multiple aspects of society, including the prevailing outlooks on religious hypocrisy and societal stereotypes to represent the social problems of the present time. Twains most prominent use of satire was with religion. Throughout the novel, he uses numerous scenarios to mock the beliefs of religion. Twain used the dispute between Shepherdsons and Grangerfords to blatantly satirize religion and expose the hypocrisy. Twain wrote, Next Sunday we all went to church about three mile, everyone a-horseback. The men took their gun and kept them between their knees or stood them handy against the wall(Twain 108). In Twains perspective, this feud is ridiculous and against moral common sense. The dispute was so long that the men forget why they started to bicker in the first place. Eventually, the men arrive to church and begin to pray to their God and soon after, they go to kill each other. This portrays that going to church to pray shows that it is more of a reputational aspect rather than a religious one that the men are worried about. Twain also uses Hucks experiences with Miss Watson to interpret satire within religion. Huck says, Miss Watson she too k me in the closet and prayed, but nothing come of it(Twain 15). Twain presents this to mock beliefs in Christianity. After not receiving what he wants when praying, Huck concludes that there is no reason behind praying to a God if nothing is received from it. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Satire and Irony in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain" essay for you Create order When irony is depicted in the novel, it is most evident when Huck is stuck between to codes of ethics that conflict against each other: following the law and turning in Jim or sneaking behind it and saving him. Huck claims, I felt easy and happy and light as a feather right off. All my troubles was gone. I went to looking out sharp for a light, and sort of singing to myself(Twain 91). This line expresses how it would be much easier to obey the law and betray Jim by turning him in, but his loyalty to Jim creates a message to the reader reminding us that what is easy might not always be morally correct. Hucks sacrifice illustrates to the reader how he struggles with moral and identity dilemmas but in the end becomes stronger and mature through apologizing and making the most moral decision. The frivolous nature of the humor caused by the irony and satire fades and open the eyes of the reader as they are forced to encounter the urgent need for societal changes. The authors voice is portrayed especially when critiquing hypocrisies and major flaws that apply to society, social institutions, and individuals. Twains voice and search for identity helps the reader to deeply understand the message of choosing what is morally correct over what is easier. Hucks presentation as a character was the most dominant in the novel but when he truly reveals what he wants for himself in society, it is evident that he developed and matured wrapping up his wisdom learned through situations he conquered even when he tried to escape them.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Executive Summary Beats By Dre has quickly become a global brand since its release in 2008. People have criticized their products, calling them overrated. Our goal today isnÃ¢â¬â¢t to review the products Beats has released, but to analyze the strategies Beats went through to become the best selling headphone company. It is important to understand the strategies companies have used to learn from not only their successes but also their failures. This report will address and highlight strategies such as: Porters five forces, Marketing mix analysis, and Ansoff s growth matrix. These strategies are all useful tools companies use in order to become better companies and increase sales. At the end I will state my opinions on the company Beats. Table of Contents I. Executive Summary Page 3 II. Introduction Page 5 III. Main Features IV. Porter Five Forces Analysis a. Industry Competition b. Threat of Potential Entrants c. The Bargaining Power of Suppliers d. Threats of Substitution e. The Bargaining Power of Buyers Page 6 V. Marketing Mix a. Product b. Price c. Place d. Promotion Page 9 VI. AnsoffÃ¢â¬â¢s Growth Matrix a. Market Penetration b. Product Development c. Market Development d. Diversification Page 11 VII. Conclusion Page 12 Bibliography Page 13 Introduction Beats Electronics is a company that produces a wide range of innovative audio products. Beats Electronics was founded in 2008 by Dr. Dre, a prominent rapper and musicShow MoreRelatedMarketing Strategy : The View From A Different Looking Glass1450 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMarketing s Contribution to Strategy: The View from a Different Looking Glass Submitted by - Shonit Mittal Introduction The case, Ã¢â¬Å"Marketing s Contribution to Strategy: The View from a Different Looking GlassÃ¢â¬ , by Dr. P Rajan Varadarajan, discusses the growing influence of marketing in the strategic decision making of the organization. The author cites numerous instances from the field of marketing where one can observe how the marketing is guiding the strategy of the companies like de-conglomerationRead MoreMarketing strategy1487 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFollower Nicher According to Shaw, Eric (2012). Marketing Strategy: From the Origin of the Concept to the Development of a Conceptual Framework. Journal of Historical Research in Marketing., there is a framework for marketing strategies. Market introduction strategies At introduction, the marketing strategist has two principle strategies to choose from: penetration or niche (47). Market growth strategies In the early growth stage, the marketing manager may choose from two additional strategicRead MoreMarketing Strategy Bcg Consulting Model1492 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMarketing Strategy At the heart of any business strategy is a marketing strategy Businesses exist to deliver products that satisfy customers. 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Companywide Strategic Planning Read MoreAn Organization s Strategic Business Units1361 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTo evaluate an organization s Strategic Business Units (SBU), the Boston Consulting Group developed a portfolio performance framework. Initially starting with the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s organizational mission and its need to make necessary steps towards making strategies for its SBU to run smoothly with equal importance it gets on the basis of its output generation and few other aspects. A firm takes series of steps to make its strategies successful. At first firm clearly define its organizational missionÃ¢â¬âItRead MoreCoca Cola Marketing Strategy1350 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCoca-Cola Case Study 1. SWOT ANALYSIS: Strengths Coca-Cola has been an intricate part of American culture for over a century. The product s image is laden with sentimentality, and this is an image many people have taken deeply to heart. The Coca-Cola image is displayed on T-shirts, hats, and collectible memorabilia. This extremely recognizable branding is one of Coca-Cola s greatest strengths. Enjoyed more than 685 million times a day around the world Coca-Cola stands as a simple, yet powerfulRead MoreStrategy Clock, Ansoff Matrix And Porter s International Strategies1729 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesstakeholderÃ¢â¬â¢s expectation. This report firstly looks into UnileverÃ¢â¬â¢s strategies using strategy clock, Ansoff matrix and PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s international strategies matrix. The strategies and some activities will be described. Afterwards, in order to evaluate the suitability of strategies, this essay explores UnileverÃ¢â¬â¢s internal and external environments to know its opportunities and threats by using PESTEL analysis and PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces. Then the essay analyses strategies in terms of capabilities which relates toRead MoreOxfam Marketing Planning1587 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesReport on market planning Whilst making marketing decisions a business must decide their method of marketing. This will then be the way in which all future marketing activities will be planned. This is marketing planning. It has a huge number of benefits for any business. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s influenced by the strategic plans of the business and its corporate objectives. Large public limited companies such as Nestle will usually have an overall plan for the business and has set objectives which theyÃ¢â¬â¢re able to
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Romanticism was a literary movement that swept through virtually the country of Europe, the United States, and Latin America that lasted from 1750 to 1870. Romanticism praised imagination over reason, emotions over logic, and intuition over science-making ways for a vast body of literature. The Romantic style resembled a fanciful character of medieval romances. This Era stressed on self-expression and individual uniqueness that does not lend itself to precise definition. Among the characteristics of Romanticism were libertarianism and nature. Libertarianism engendered by the romantic philosophy, the desire to be free of tyranny. The romantic association of nature and spirit expressed itself in two ways; it either regarded as an extension of the human personality, or nature is regarded as a vehicle for spirits such as man (mthlyoke.edu). This paper is going to tell you about two of the writers of the Romanticism Era, Edgar Allen Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne, how real-life events affect ed their writings, and how their professional careers affected their writings. Edgar Allen Poe was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 19,1809 to two traveling actors (Poe s Museum). Poe was the second of three children. He had an older brother, William Henry Leonard Poe, and a younger sister, Rosalie Poe. Before Edgar was three years old, both his parents had died (Poe s Museum). Poe was then taken in and raised by foster parents, John and Frances Allen of Richmond, Virginia. Allen sentShow MoreRelatedNathaniel Hawthorne And Edgar Allen Poe1318 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNathanial Hawthorne and Edgar Allen Poe are inextricably connected because of their methodology of works. These two authors of Dark Romanticism, delve into in their writings of pensive mystery and sorrowful characteristics of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Puritan thought. Both Hawthorne and Poe apprehend the impact of transgression and evil on humanity. Ã¢â¬Å"The BirthmarkÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬ LigeiaÃ¢â¬ both recognize that a yearning for perfection can generate a dark obsession that directs the heart and will of man. Ã¢â¬Å"The BirthmarkÃ¢â¬ is aRead MoreDevelopment Of Narrative, By Nathaniel Hawthorne, And Edgar Allen Poe1302 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJames Kirkpatrick English 231 American Literature I 10 November 2014 Development of Narrative Short stories did not begin to develop as a dedicated, intentional genre until the early 1800s, when authors such as Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Edgar Allen Poe began to attract readers with them. These authors were from the Romanticism period. Three characteristics of Romanticism are having a profound love of nature, passionate nationalism, and a fascination with the supernatural. StoriesRead MoreAmerican Authors: Nathaniel Hawthorne and Edgar Allen Poe1470 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNathaniel Hawthorne and Edgar Allen Poe Ã¢â¬Å"To fear death, gentlemen, is no other than to think oneself wise when one is not, to think one knows what one does not know. No one knows whether death may not be the greatest of all blessings for a man, yet men fear it as if they knew that it is the greatest of evils.Ã¢â¬ Socrates one of the greek philosophers in the 400Ã¢â¬â¢s BC, gives a reasonable question about the fear of death. Death affects people and characters very differently in life. In the world of literaryRead MoreRalph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, And Edgar Allen Poe1047 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessimilar. In the late 18th century and early 19th century, many authors successfully could explain the characteristics of human nature and the effects that it has on everyone and everything surrounding human beings. Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Edgar Allen Poe all convey the behavior of human nature in separate ways. These three authors show the curiosity, drive for perfection, and fear of human nature throughout their texts in detail. With these characteristics being prominent in humanRead MoreDifferent Colors Of Darkness By Nathaniel Hawthorne And Edgar Allen Poe995 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCallie Shipley Mrs. Carroll Literature 2326 5 October 2014 Different Hues of Darkness At first glance, Nathaniel Hawthorne and Edgar Allen Poe may appear as though they are two birds of a feather. Their stories are often dark and dismal, and an enduring despair runs through the tales as a common thread. However, their inspirations originate from opposite ends of the spectrum. HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s works are the offspring of legalistic Puritan values and beliefs; on the other hand, PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s stories reflect godlessnessRead MoreThe Romantic Period Of William Wordsworth, Nathaniel Hawthorne, And Edgar Allen Poe1019 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthat are leaders at the forefront of this epic social battle such as William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats, Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley, William Blake, John Clare, Walter Scott, Mary Shelley, Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Edgar Allen Poe. The passive approach of writing allows the Romantic literature produced to transcend throughout history and influence the likes of philosophers, poetics, social activ ists, and other prominent figures of the modern age. These individualsRead MoreThe Romantic Period Of John Dickens, Nathaniel Hawthorne, And Edgar Allen Poe1340 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfigures that stood out as leaders of this epic social battle such as William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats, Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley, William Blake, John Clare, Walter Scott, Mary Shelley, Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Edgar Allen Poe. The passive approach of writing allows the Romantic literature produced to transcend throughout history and influence the likes of philosophers, poetics, social activists, and other prominent figures of the modern age. These individualsRead MoreAnti-Transcendentalism in Nathaniel HawthorneÃ ´s Dr. Heideggers Experiment and Edgar Allen PoeÃ ´s The Fall of the House of Usher569 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesAnti-Transcendentalism, including Nathaniel Hawthorne and Edgar Allan Poe.Both writers used their stories as a platform to expose the reality of human nature. Hawthorne discuss the foolishness found in youth in Dr. Heideggers Experiment while Poe writes about the tragedy of not being able to escape your fate in The Fall of the House of the Usher. So essentially, each writer effortlessly demonstrates the traits of Anti-Transcendentalism. In Dr. Heideggers Experiment Hawthorne explores many elementsRead MoreAn Analysis Of Edgar Allan Poe And Ralph Waldo Emerson1090 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesunique textual language. Despite these obstacles, American authors such as Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Ralph Waldo Emerson assisted in the emergence of American Literature and the development of the Ã¢â¬Å"American Voice.Ã¢â¬ Edgar Allen Poe has played a crucial role in the development of the Ã¢â¬Å"American Voice.Ã¢â¬ Although his work uses the same language as English writers, it is also very different. Edgar Allen Poe was born in 1809 and died in 1849. He was a writer, poet, critic, and an editorRead MoreYoung Goodman Brown And A Cask Of Amontillado Analysis1110 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGoodman Brown by Nathaniel Hawthorne and A Cask of Amontillado by Edgar Allen Poe, there are many examples of situational irony that are used comparably in both texts. Dramatic irony is the type of irony that informs the reader of a certain fact that one or more characters in the story may not know. This is quite evident in Young Goodman Brown and A Cask of Amontillado, because of the lack of knowledge that the characters have with their acquaintances. In Young Goodman Brown, Hawthorne plays with the
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Forecasting Volatility in Financial Markets. Answer: Introduction Commonwealth bank of Australia is the biggest bank in Australia by assets and customer base. It offers a variety of financial services and products that aims at improving the financial welfare of its customers. It is an Australian multinational with banking and financial interests in other countries such as New Zealand, United Kingdom, United States of America, Fiji and Asia. It is headquartered in Sydney Australia with its CEO being Ian Narev. Other senior executive officers include David Whitening its Chief Information Officer and Dave White. Moreover, its subsidiaries include; Bank west, ASB Bank and the Commonwealth securities. In 2015/2016 financial year it recorded outstanding revenue of $24.58 billion AUD to top in the financial markets revenue collectors(Alexander, 2008). Due to its ability to improve on its products and innovate with time, Commbank has continued to grow and add its customer base due to efficiency in service delivery. Commonwealth bank of Australia has committed itself to fulfilling the corporate and legal responsibilities by implementing policies, practices and procedures to give the Australian people, the visitors and its customers quality financial services. Accounts Analysis/ Financial statements Analysis In financial year ending 30th June 2016, commonwealth bank group reported an increase in net profit after income tax at $9.247 billion up from $9.084 billion in 2015. The statement of comprehensive income shows a marginal increase in net profit or loss of the company which is a joy to the shareholders. However, the total comprehensive income tax net of income tax fell from $9.772 billion in the year 2015 to $9.534 billion in this financial year. As at 30th June 2016, the total asset base of commonwealth bank group stood at $ 933.07 billion up from $ 873.44 billion in 2015. Net liabilities for the bank stood at $ 872.32 billion up from $ 820.7 in the previous 2015(Armour et al., n.d.). The total shareholders equity rose to $ 60.76 billion in 2016 from $ 52.99 billion in 2015. Ordinary share capital as at 30th June 2016 stood at $ 34,125 million while other equity investments stood at $ 406 million. Reserves held by the bank stood at $ 3115 million while retained profits as at 30th June 2016 stood at $ 20,443 million. Additionally, equity attributable to equity holders of the bank is at $ 58,076 million. Cash and cash equivalent at the end of the year is $ 12,909 million down from $ 18,165 million at the end of year 2015(Armour et al., n.d.). Cash and cash equivalent at the end are a contribution of financing activities, investing activities and operating activities of the bank at that particular year. Board of Directors Report Having audited the balance sheet and the income statement of Commonwealth bank for the year ending 30th June 2016, and other financial statements such as the cash flow statements, these are the conclusions made by the board of directores report. Indeed, a lot of financial statements such as statements of income and balances sheet stetements are responsible for decision making by the companys management (Basic accounting, 2010). The responsibility of the board of directors report is to have the opinion expressed in the financial statements that is based on the audits. Audited reports are conducted in accordance to the international stanadrds on Auditing and referenced to the relevant national standards and practices in auditing. The directors report require that we plan and perform audit inorder to get a reasonable assurance on the audited financial statements so as not to have material misstatements. Auditing financial statements include examining evidence selectively or otherwise, examination of supporting figures and financial statements disclosure. It also includes accounting principles disclosures used and the management estimates made in the financial statements. Presentation of the overall financial position of commonwealth bank is also done as required by the statutory laws governing corporates. Therefore an audit provides reasonable basis for formation of an opinion. In qualified opinions, there are matters that do not necessarily affect the opinion of the auditors.in circumctanses that financial statements are analysed more extensively. The empasies paragraphonly highlights an issue affecting the financial statements of commonwealth bank of Australia. The emphasy paragraph does not increasingly affect the auditors opinion on the books of financial statements (LeRoy and Werner, 2001). Audited reports are conducted in accordance to the international stanadrds on Auditing and referenced to the relevant national standards and practices in auditing. The directors report require that we plan and perform audit inorder to get a reasonable assurance on the audited financial statements so as not to have material misstatements. The paragraph forming the opinion should only show that the auditor doe not have a caveat emptor in opinion formation regard. Fraud in Commonwealth bank of Australia According to audited financial statements, commonwealth bank of Australia has no fraud in its books. In addition to using an emphasis paragraph for matters affecting financial statements, the auditor may also qualify his or her opinion by the auditor should consider including in its opinion a paragraph of emphasis describing the inconsistency Audited reports are conducted in accordance to the international stanadrds on Auditing and referenced to the relevant national standards and practices in auditing. The directors report require that we plan and perform audit inorder to get a reasonable assurance on the audited financial statements so as not to have material misstatements. There are no fraudulent accounts detected, therefore the auditor gave an unqualified report to the accounts of the bank. The only accounts with problems are dispute accounts of customers and credit card disputes. They are handled internally by the operations department of the commonwealth bank. All accounts with transactional disputes are reversed and their original position reinstated. This is made easier due to the audit trail of bank accounts statements and the audit trail. Outside material The commonwealth bank of Australia conducts other important functions for the society. Like any other organization, it has a corporate responsibility issue that affects the society positively. It is important to note that the company contributes a lot of positive influence in Australia mainly in health and education. Critical review Commonwealth bank of Australia has committed itself to fulfilling the corporate and legal responsibilities by implementing policies, practices and procedures to give the Australian people, the visitors and its customers quality financial services. The statement of comprehensive income shows a marginal increase in net profit or loss of the company which is a joy to the shareholders. However, the total comprehensive income tax net of income tax fell from $9.772 billion in the year 2015 to $9.534 billion in this financial year. Due to its ability to improve on its products and innovate with time, Commbank, has continued to grow and add its customer base due to efficiency in service delivery. Comparisons with standards In accounting matters, all accounting and financial records have to be prepared in accordance to international accounting standards (IAS). Commonwealth bank of Australia keeps its books according to these standards. The accounting principle is the general standard in which financial statements are based on. However, different auditors have been appointed during the annual general meetings to audit the financial statements of the bank and give their opinion. In corporate social responsibility standards, commonwealth bank of Australia has done better than many corporates in Australia(Zuber-Skerritt, 2012). They include; community and education investment, environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues, diversity, training, customer satisfaction and Greenhouse gas emission CBA. Conclusion and suggestion In conclusion, commonwealth bank of Australia has done well in financial and banking spheres. Over the years, it has grown in leaps and bounds due to efficiency in service delivery and products innovation. The accounting responsibility to the shareholders by the management is to keep good books of accounts. This way, standards in accounting are kept and applied to detect accounting fraud. This should be the general rule in commonwealth bank and the general banking sector in Australia. Therefore, to safeguard the interest of the shareholder, proper books of accounts are necessary in all aspects presently and in the future. References Alexander, C. (2008). Market risk analysis. Chichester, England: Wiley. Alexander, C. (2008). Market risk analysis. Chichester, England: Wiley. Armour, J., Awrey, D., Davies, P., Enriques, L., Gordon, J., Mayer, C. and Payne, J. (n.d.). Principles of financial regulation. Basic accounting. (2010). London: Teach Yourself. 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